City landmarks are one of the important buildings in architectural-urban design. Sometimes, the importance of these infrastructures affects the city itself due to their main role: declaration of identity, character and essence of city in one manifested structure.
Studies about these symbols explore that the foundation of these buildings based upon concept, tradition, culture, identity, history and context of city. For instance, one of the most city elements is Triumphal Arch at France which is a monumental rising from context of history, or Eiffel Tower which observes steel and crafts ages in France. The everlasting magnificent of these structures is for their deep insights and contexts reason. This is the cause that in spite of passing years, they are still precious and splendid.
Another example of city monuments in last decades is Berlin wall, Max Reinhardt Haus, designed by Peter Eisenman. This mobious form represents its concepts in order to show the break up era and at the same time serves its duty as multipurpose and multifunctional space.
In Iran, one of the most significant symbols could be named as Azadi (Shahyad) Monument, "Statue of Liberty". This monument which represents the Persian civilization and culture through ages, located centrally in a large plaza. The structure comprised four huge columns joined on top and forming four arches and sits in a plaza of fountains and landscaping patterned similarly to ancient Persian gardens. A foundation hall museum in the basement and two main exhibition halls on the upper floors are reached through the main entry level. The faceted dome covering the top floor is inspired by the traditional vaults in Persian buildings of the Islamic era. Thus, elements like pre-and-after Islamic arches, stone installation and etc., reflects the whole unity of elements.
City symbols, landmarks and plaza's could be an individual structure without any functional parameters or, a multipurpose building defined by its contiguity and serves some civic facilities.
Constructing elements and civic/regional/local symbols will continue for ever. This is because of the human need for these individual elements, indicating the city and representing aesthetic part of it. In La Villet Park project, Bernard Tschumi employs crimson cubes in order to mortise and tenon the site.
Something to mention is that the local elements differs from city elements in forms of transition of concepts, contents and dimensions. Local symbols are smaller than the other one in dimension and size may have to pull less cultural-identical bearing role, and it could be sewed and mended the old and new fabric through nonphysical defined character and feature, and give monolithic and integration identity to the city (ex. the defined identity could be in cultural-historical axe and be repeated via specific concepts). So, in brief, for visual aesthetics, transmitting ideas and contexts, and for city attraction parameters, it could not be simply just passing through this subject and, not be claimed for maintaining and representing values and beliefs of city merely with bungling some pieces of stone and brick (which of course, if they could be used in proper place by considered pattern, they have something to tell).