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Sunday، 28 May 2017
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The role of creativity in architect education

Ali KhiabanianAbstract:
Creativity as one of the most important factors of education is taken into consideration in recent years and psychologist and thinkers of education try to define and regulate a system and methods that are able to reinforce Creativity Power of people.

This problem has been discussed and analysed by art and architecture fields since a long time ago and up to now also different solutions have been posed in different books and articles for training creative artists and architectures. The first and the most general question which we encounter usually at the beginning of disscusion, whether in lesson class or in specialized discussions is this that; how we can increase creativity power of people, or is creativity trainable and learnable? In discussions which will be posed continually, while we will answer to given questions, will proceed to creativity role in education, especially art and architecture education.
Key words: human, architecture, education, creativity.

Introduction
Human needs to discover nature secrets and reach to notions which mean his creation and world creation; as if in every creation by him, he gets nearer to and more aware of his creation.
Awareness in the direction of all knowns and unknowns of existence which call internal self of every person with many ardors. When you hold a pen in your hands and spread your findings as a poem or a painting of watercolor on a white paper arena, before you know nature accompanies you with a great excitement and has opened it inspiring apertures in your mind and calls you to an again production and each time newer than before taints your mind spread to new notions.
A mind which is creativity and full of new ideas in a great space of ability infinity and energy of unconsciouse conscience waits until you will and it creates.
For a long time, the mind of architecture theorists has been preoccupied by this question that if architecture design or the process of reaching to architecture mould is only a type of creativity mental action or we can't explain clearly the generality of it's structure or by thinking and deliberating about different views of architects we can account the process of architecture design?
The most important reasons of this can be difference of views and different approaches of architecture and or each architect who has worked in special framework of certain time or place and probably he also has created valuable and lasting works which time lapse has not decreased its values and specifications, but has increased them. Most of people who has discussed about design process, has granted some stages to it. Different people pass these stages by different ways.
Many of designers, maybe most of them explained design process completely intuitive and unaccountable. Others have known design as an intellectual process and other group knows it a controversial process which each of these views need separate discussions. But almost all of designers accept the importance of intuition in design process and exactly this point is considered as common face of these works and their architect, connection with existence and freedom in nature skirt as in a special moment ideas and thoughts flow in mind and heart of artist an he begin to create while is tipsy of such a moment's energy and interestingly wisdom rule is very weak n this area highest degree of artist's creativity is the best characteristic of presence and occurrence of such a level of consciousness that according to author's of given architectures have created or at least understood is such a mental or psychological state. Two important characteristics of these architectures that of course sustainable works of other artistic fields also are not exceptional is that they have been able to imagine deep and sustainable notions of life and human in the framework of architecture space and most important than all, created space by them induce new notions and thoughts in the direction of human relationship with existence and vise versa, and certainly we can say such a process and creation is not executable only by help of human and necessitates other forces exploitation.
Architect's work as a creative personality is passing through a continuous process of artistic creation, a process which begins by a central motive that itself is an abstract of a chain of other motives and ends to creation of final design. Designer doesn't create a thing from another thing, but also he creates a new thing and in this path takes assistance of his imagination power. So it is impossible to know a design previously or assign a complete rule and certain path for design method.
This is one of the most important points which are evident in sketches that architects do without special subject and only according to a type of inner excitation.

Definitions of creativity:
Recognition of everything dimensions and specifications, even a notion, will be necessary when ends to better usage and conclusion.
For this sake we cannot ignore a category such as creativity.
As doing every work based on creativity will have more valuable conclusion. Creativity recognition, definition of its specifications and analyze of its indexes are suitable prelude for each action. But the point is this that up to now has been offered various definitions and explanations about creativity; of course none of them are not complete and expressive. We should add some point and explanations to each of these definitions in order to include all relevant dimensions in a notion called creativity. Psychologists are not unanimous about creativity definition and look at creativity of different angles. In past the axis of psychologists' discussion about creativity was creative person or creative process. Nowadays though many scientists also look at creativity as a process, but their definitions about creativity are based on productivity specification. Authorities have offered various definitions for creativity from different aspects which here we refer to the most important of them:

- tony proctor (1999) by quotation of Wertheimer (1945 and 1959) says creativity is being able to have a new and different look at a subject and in other words is breaking process and rebuilding our knowledge about one subject and gaining new insight about its nature.
- Richards (1997) writes creativity is exiting from mental frameworks. He also says creativity is detection of new and meaningful things.
- Teresa Amiably (1996) says creativity is production of new and useful ideas in all areas.
- Gilford (1954) knows creativity as divergent thought (against convergent thought)
- Edward Bone knows creativity as lateral (or horizontal) thought (against vertical thought).

Creativity education and training
Creativity means freedom from every assumptions, frameworks and musts.
We should not neglect that creativity and intelligence are not some. So many intelligent people sometimes produce or supply thing which are not new necessarily. Also sometimes very creativity people don't lesson to group works, but very intelligent people often tries to make happy group.
Creativity people often are divergent thinkers. In divergent though, a person produces many answers for a question. If we want to open more creativity and intelligence issue, it should be said that creativity is the result of intelligence and this rule will be obtained that most of creative people are intelligent; but most of intelligent people are not creative.
Carl Rogers, one of the contemporary psychologists writes in discussion about creativity: "clearly we cannot create creativity forcedly, but we should let it to appear, so as farmer can not pull out shoot from seed, however he can provide suitable conditions for seed growth. It is true also about creativity; we should provide a suitable field for our children and student's creativity growth and development. One of my experiences in psychology is that we can increase the possibility of creator creativity advent by providing mental safety and freedom.
Instructors of art education know enthusiasm and excitement or the same interest as central motive of education. This is the very well-known philosophical sentence which says: until you are not interested to something, you will not know it. If in past, educational system was based on repetition and imitation, today no longer, imitation and indisputable obedience and following have no place in creative education principles. Therefore, maybe one of the most important tasks of educational instructors is creating enthusiasm and interest morale for education.

The problem of Iran's architecture:
"Training and growth of creativity, thought production"
Let's judge a little about our country's architecture and do correct valuation Iran's architecture in comparison with world architecture, see in which level is our country's architecture and how defined architectures rule is society and professional world level are. If we come back a little and consider 40 and 50 decades, we will see how big architectures, in a distance less than 3 or 4 decades, could create works which unexaggeratedly will gleam many years as symbols of modernity entrance and it's confrontation with Iran's architecture. We can enumerate many cases as mental and practical discontinuity of that era's thought which has been very important. Nowadays also maybe we observe effectiveness of same type of done actions in previous decades especially in construction era; but this we don't want return back an satisfy mental vacancies of Iran's today society's architects by fault finding of past! Besides, deal with future also seems useless because of conditions which govern Iran's architecture! Always custom is this that we tie past concert to future ambitions and mottos and flee from place and time that we are in it. We never have tried to believe our society's reality, Endeavour in a framework which is necessity of our economic, social and even political conditions.
For many years, we have presented our selves with a very much pride to world under the shade of perspolis and Nagsh-e-jahan square and have avoided any new motion and rethink in architecture process and other group also with another type of such a self-doubt resorts to world and introduces their tools and thoughts as the most correct path for achieving to true architecture. all of them are said and even used which we are not able to know position that are in it: without considering the degree of today architect's abilities or concept which are available in the mind of agents and people about architecture, consider techniques given by the outside of the socially, whether by Iran's traditional architecture or west world, and can not reach a desirable result.
What we see in the architecture of 80's in Iran. Is the activity of big architects and consulters who sometimes profit by the presence of same coworkers of European countries and generally have had wide educations in different countries?
In this decade of Iran's architecture, even having access to considerable number of books and sources about Iran's traditional architecture also is possible. One of the others specifications of this decode is that new techniques and materials have entered into Iran's market and if we consider that same of the architects of Iran's 40's and 50's still alive, we will observe a suitable bed for growth and development of architecture knowledge but in such as bed with such a possibilities which we have observed less in previous decades, Iran's architecture is in a lamentable situation. If we look realistic around, we will see that our three previous decades souvenir is not anything except several architecture works which can be raised in country scale and their numbers don't violate of hand fingers and other constructions are not important in this several remained works also we can not find an expression of effective thought presence and or an approach which can repair broken ship of our architecture and mentioned as good nor true works.
Iran's today architects and those who stand in high position of mastership and multiplicity of their offices projects and look at people and society proudly and with an indescribable self-glorification, do they suggest which path or method for saving from the mire of wandering and disillusionment? We should accept that there is not so high thought among thinkers of our today architecture, and if it exists, willingly or not, exposed to the command of dominant power on architecture and have resorted to a defensive isolation.
Neither Takht-e-Jamshid nor Agha Bozorg-school mosque and nor single works of Dutch architecture (which today even newcomer students also copies them) can not be proper model for today architect.
This architect is a human who lives in the forth world with thousands of imitations and great talents our society is very affected by modern world and its achievements: and our architects cannot escape it and we should not forget that architecture which nowadays manifests exaggeratedly and tries to change the world's peculiarities is not superior to sciences and techniques…
Our architecture should be realistic and know that our society and architecture can be formed and developed according to our achievements, not according to treasures that east and west imposed U.S and reviewed thousands of in classroom and various associations. We should start something new and before everything we should think about producing thought and contemplation of architecture.
In such a disturbed area we can't find any prefect architect and architecture. unless we know our position without Exaggeration and without using the conceptions and thoughts of ancients and the west, and offer accurate and correct analysis by a meditation far from inspirations and excitements of the world architecture.
Many people try to portrait a thought and conception in the mould of building or in design and image of a tableau and think if they do so the created work will have a special and depth and content. If the selected concepts are more philosophic and historic, them they will seem more valuable, equally, and maybe this interpretation leads same architects to repeat the successful samples of Iran's architecture history or imitate this honorable architecture. We acknowledge that our past and architecture and literature have had high depth and content and every artist and architect's duty is that investigate and search about the history and findings of his past generation and use their experience. However repeating and imitating of architectural works and buildings by this imagination that revival and reconstruction historical treasures seems a vain and unwise work. It is likely in many social and cultural fields, most of thinkers regret about the past and instead of offering a new theories and methods in association with tradition, and recognizing stabilization of current situation in opposition with west world. They see new findings and conceptions vain and worthless. Therefore during recent decades Iran with such a connectional and philosophical records in artistic and especially architectural fields is not able to protect ancients' benefits.
Artists and architects, today, read, write and discuss abut what has happened and finished. Life does not continue by memory of past and regret and remorse, it is a kind of standing still. While many of architectural memorials and masterpieces of this country, ruin in their obscurity and nobody pay attention to this issue contrast between speech and action brims in words and teachings of architecture, and this waves of our ignorance and neglect undermines Iran's art and thought in other words as Bahram Hoshyar Yousefi says: "generally, researcher's approach towards reaching to a individualism concept and influenced by Iranian-Islamic architecture and geometry, although is a perfect sample of Iranian action within the post-modern valley and in opposition to it's non-Iranian type, but tens years record of this kind of behavior towards architecture, clearly indicates to its superficiality and is a kind of vicious circle in its repetition.

Preparing a ground for society and training of creative architects:
Carl Rogers, one of the contemporary psychologists writes in discussion about creativity: "clearly we cannot create creativity forcedly, but we should let it to appear, so as farmer can not pull out shoot from seed, however he can provide suitable conditions for seed growth. It is true also about creativity; we should provide a suitable field for our children and student's creativity growth and development. One of my experiences in psychology is that we can increase the possibility of creator creativity advent by providing mental safety and freedom.

Creativity and innovation are essential and preliminary steps for developing and improvement and elevation of the society, also having information about its techniques and methods is an inevitable need for managers, students, researchers and those who are interested in this field. A society which upswing of development governs it, everyday sees creativity and innovation of its individual members in this society innovation will not be limited to thinkers and scholars class and will be expanded in all over the society. Preparing social ground in the direction of thought production, and emphasize on creative education, in all fields is a perfect selection that can approximate us to strong presence of past, and guarantee lasting of our constructions in the future. In order to reach to such a purpose, we should use of multiple methods, and sometimes carry out all these methods, simultaneously. For example, for training creative architects we need creative students who know the power of creativity and way of using their abilities for creating. We need continuous, planned and purposeful teaching for training these forces. We should start from schools and continue at universities. Architects and professors of architecture and its students need to learn continuously and need a space for different and various experiences, until finally they discover and understand the creativity methods. Undoubtedly education systems should be changed and we should offer a new definition and interpretation of architecture and provide suitable bed for critics and basic and serious challenges, investigations and challenges; also suitable instruments and facilities should be supplied and soon…
We should know that training a generation of creative architects is a long term and multi- dimensional program need cooperation and coordination of institutes and authorities of various organizations.
This cooperation will be possible when we know that architects construct our living-place and we can't escape from their deficiencies.

Lack of attention to meaning and content in architectural education:
The most important defect of our educational system is that we don't teach to our students how to use their intelligence and conscience capacities. We neglect countless potentials and abilities of brain hemispheres and only do with exploitation of memory power. Generally, reasoning and creativity power of students remains untouched from the same beginning levels of education and as if training the talents has no place in our educational category. Naturally in these conditions we cannot expect students to use their talents.
In our schools from the elementary to high levels and even in technical & vocational and work & knowledge branches also students learn very little to use their mind abilities and imagination power. This false and useless educational system of our country even desiccates creativity of students who have been taught imagination while playing in the kindergartens. Most of today students are children trained in limited spaces of apartments and schools and usually their thoughts hasn’t had any aviation beyond the words which are made in imaginational films or spaces; and worse than this is that their educational process, even if each possibility has been provided (which is not generally so) there hasn't been any possibility to experience and trial and error.
In our country educational process always contains memorization of some points just for repetition in exam and even making mistake or experiencing new ways and methods for comprehension has been blamed, while education is a process which is done by teacher and pupil or by professor and student and is a common activity to solve a problem, create a work, which finally leads to mental and intellectual promotion and dehiscence of both sides.
Education should be based on thought, research and creativity. Relationship between teacher and student is latitudinal, not longitudinal. As teacher asks a question and student solely tries to solve and complete the problem. Teacher as a guiding force moves alongside student and show him way and in some stages makes path more plane and even more interesting. Exact introduction of signs and symbols of the path is not teacher's task; but he should provide fields and condition through path so as student succeed to knowing and understanding phenomena. Introducing different sources , criticizing about thinker's opinion, analyzing similar examples and most important of all, encouraging and emphasizing on personal experiences will add to students comprehension of relationships between phenomena and rules, limitations, goals and system tools, delicacy and accuracy of project.
In fact teacher or professor is a person who determines the atmosphere of class and his task is teaching by assistance of talents training. Teaching only is not teacher's or professor's task in the class.
Education is a reciprocal activity and is a process that happens between teacher and student or pupil and a teacher may use various ways for this work but finally his teaching methods just show students the ways of reaching to an answer- not the answer itself. In traditional teaching methods, teacher or professor is the only agent of the class, and expresses orally materials which has already been prepared and students show no reaction. In fact traditional teaching tries to fill student's memory with information and decorate them with great thoughts. While such an attitude towards a person who wants to learn and experience and finally create something, is a kind of enmity because it destroys his talents and abilities. Against this method for teaching, there is also an active method in which teacher has guider role these are the students or pupils themselves who have original function in the class. In this method the extent of program may be decreased but this is the quality of the program that is considered. It is proved that knowledge acquired by free researches and investigations remains better in the mind and give chance to student to reach the methods which can be used during his lifetime and continually expand his curiosity scope and student learns how to use his mind personally; so he builds freely his concepts and imaginations.
The courses which are taught in schools and universities all expire in repetition and monotonousness of units and terms, spiritless and without any feeling which motivates interest and excitement in students. According to one of the scientists we only produce full brains, not informed ones. Our creativity hemisphere from the beginning days of school isolates and any innovation and statement even by parents desolated by system and teachers. Desolation of thousands of ideas and thoughts and reflections which can create great and effective people of 7 years old children. Innocent, creative and happy children are crushed under fear from teacher and heaviness of homework which must be wrote and memorized.

Creativity role in architecture education
Having high creativity and flexible mind has special position in the process of creating artistic works and so each artist proportional to specifications of his artistic personality, considers its stimulation and fertility very important. On the other hand, recent studies show that we can also teach creativity and by using methods which are proportionate to characteristic and psychological specifications, its strengthening is possible. this has resulted to a new approach in education area which against usual ways of education ,its goal is training a creative and dynamic mind in different dimensions of life. Le Corbusier, in defining of architecture grants special position to creativity:'' …this fact that architecture is created in a moment of creativity, is undeniable. When the mind is engaged in how to guarantee the solidity of a building and also how to provide demands for comfort and convenience, it is motivated to reach a goal higher than providing just needs and is prepared to exhibit poetical abilities that motivate us and bestow us joy and happiness. (Nature of architecture-by Rag rach Clark, Michel powers- publisher: nashre khak)

Steps of mental creativity
Authorities often see creativity a process with 5 steps. They are:
1. Readiness: when you thinks deeply abut a problem or your favorite issue and your curiosity is stimulated, you can not simple set aside that problem.
2. Training: ideas occur to your mind and in this step; sometimes you find an unusual link between affairs.
3. Insight: this is the "oh!" step, exactly. The moment that one discovers the relationship between the steps, problem is solved and puzzle is completes!
4. Assessment: Now, you should decide which of your ideas are valuable and worth to follow them.
5. Extension: This is the final step of creativity and often the longest and most difficult step, i, e. we must be able to expand it (W.Santrak 2004).

Basic principles in creative education in art
We can divide teaching methods to two main groups: Active teaching methods and inactive (traditional) teaching methods.
- In inactive teaching method, only teacher have an active role during teaching and he expresses rally in the classroom subjects which are assigned previously, students do not react significantly. The only duty of traditional teaching is to fill child's memory with information and decorate it by science ornament and great thoughts.
In contrast to traditional teaching method there are other methods in which students are active and sections of training and teaching are undertaken by students. In face, there is a bilateral cooperation between students and teacher and among students. In this method it is suggested that the quantity of program is reduced and paid more attention to quality because it has been approved that insights acquired during certain freely research, remain better in mind and give change to student to achieve methods which can be used during all periods of life and continuously expand the range of his curiosity. Student learns how to use his mind personally and thus establishes his conceptions and thoughts, freely.
Educational system should not always adapt itself with conditions and necessities of the society, but first of all it is necessary to adapt it with conditions and needs of student. Creative education at its best and complete from give a sense of prediction to student. The sense of prediction mean student by distinguishing of his abilities and limits finds a flexible state toward world: so that he is able to change himself and his aims, and at every moment shows the best possible reaction. There fore, in creative education one firmly has a feeling of personal responsibility about his work and goal, because he knows the reflection of his acts has a plenty effect on formation of his fate (John Dewey 1859-1952).
Our educational authorities and our facilities and equipments do not help us to plan for creativity development. Percent of pass rate is the criterion for decision-making. All attempts of people are focused on this that students should memorize book word by word and present it point by point. If sometimes a spark of hope is found it is not the result of individuals planning. Consider teacher and parents and their relation ships with each other. You will find that they have no role in this area because if it was so there must be an increase in the number of creative individuals of a special region year by year.
The courses which are taught in schools and universities all expire in repetition and monotonousness of units and terms, spiritless and without any feeling which motivates interest and excitement in students. According to one of the scientists we only produce full brains, not informed ones.
Preparing fields and conditions which lead to strengthening the creative thought in educational spaces has a wide range that starts from changing of conceptions and continues to teaching methods and self-confidence we will refer to cases like these that are basic principles of active and divergent training.
1. Confronting with prejudice and critical thought exercise.
2. Creating excitement and interest in students.
3. Creating self-confidence about human abilities and inner forces.
4. We can manage classes in a pervasive-based way instead of teacher- based one.
5. Cognition of valuable traditions in order to order to discover and intuition of interest.
6. reception of new ideas of professor (teachers)
7. Purification and strengthening the relationships between teacher and student.
8. creating a free space for argument and discussion (free-thinking)
9. Setting the chair in a circle shape instead of rows which are parallel and behind each other.
10. More emphasize on positive points of students works.
11. Importance of thinking process and architectural work, not the result of work (usually paying attention to end of a work (destination) prevents one pays attention to around environment.
12. Doing the perceptional sketches in which creativity has the most important role and human wisdom should have the least presence.
13. Open writing which helps to students' mental solidarity.
Determine the procedure of class and offered subjects according to abilities and consultation with students.
15. Creative imagination (imagination of presence and motion in designs and done sketches).
16. Professor must try to give some exercise in class before offering a subject, to persuade student under stand some essential conceptions implicitly and order them in his mind.
17. Moving from self to self (without considering mental from work and special pattern of design).
18. At some step of designing process, designer usually encounters with a mental vacuum and he is not able to continue his work, we should be precise able student's morale and open his mental knot, otherwise he will repeat previous designer or imitate hiss classmates.
19. Do not afraid of failure and destroying of design. Use your own ideas bravely and with a full motivation.
20. If you really want to understand something, try to change it (kerf Levin 1890-1947).
21. Use simulation in order to link phenomena in your mind.
22. Enjoy touring I nature and pay attention to sounds and scents.
23. Creating fields for thinking and deliberation in class. For example, in classes' theoretical or practical lessons, professor can ask students to discuss and criticize about an architect's designing method his attitude toward site and function of project and ask them to find a better substitute for that architects decisions.
24. Visual thinking.
25. Give yourself a opportunity for fantasizing, and imaginary thoughts. 26. There is a sensational pleasure in teaching and learning, experience it make delight and unprecedented memories every moments of the class in your students and yourself minds. Enter the class energetic and greet joyfully and teach excitedly and answer eagerly their questions. Let them feel fully your interest in teaching. Remember when you enter a class reluctantly, even the hands of clock stop.

Conclusion:
It is important for an artist to strengthen his mind and open the windows of imagination and we can not define an architect or artist out of frame work of idea and creativity. Conceptions, formed metaphorically and allegorically in a mental space, need a field for nurturing and developing and should embodied by specific instruments of any profession in the external world. Reanalyzing of done cases and re-reflection of them in mind. Recalls a two-sided movement which has a vertical comings and goings in a horizontal path and this issue has offered experienced ideas besides deepening the practical structure of mind and increases one's level of architectural thinking.
Creativity and innovation are essential and preliminary steps for developing and improvement and elevation of the society, also having information about its techniques and methods is an inevitable need for managers, students, researchers and those who are interested in this field. A society which upswing of development governs it, everyday sees creativity and innovation of its individual members in this society innovation will not be limited to thinkers and scholars class and will be expanded in all over the society. Preparing social ground in the direction of thought production, and emphasize on creative education, in all fields is a perfect selection that can approximate us to strong presence of past, and guarantee lasting of our constructions in the future. obviously a new system must be established in the field of art and architecture education at schools and universities and also a new method called divergent thought and valuation of new ideas and thoughts in professional world of architecture and in the society should be started, which this is a good excuse for approaching and harmony of universities with facts of this arena.
Today like the past centuries our country has many scholars and talented men and the young. Who only need accompany and association of artists and the great. They can dehiscent if there is facilities and suitable space and teacher's experiences can cut down the path and increase their enthusiasm.
We should not surrender limits, but also we should pass corrals. Training borders and disciplinary rules try to control a creative life. These are understandable efforts for a multiple, compound and changed process. We must pass these limits and restriction and must not surrender them.

Sources:
1. What is creativity? Sob-be-kheir Iran Internet journal, 4th of mehr, 1385.
2. Soltanzade, 1379, architects education cultural researches office, Tehran.
3. Carl Rogers (1902-1987), an introduction to becoming human, translated by Ghasem Ghazi, Tehran.
4. Jan shatow, translated by Glamhosein shokohi, big instructors, Tehran university press.
5. Fallamek. M, Roots and theoretical tendencies of architecture, Faza press, Tehran, 1381.
6. Khiabanian, architecture creation process, Naghsh-e-Noo art and architecture weekly-13th no, Tehran, 1385.
7. Mind engineering and creativity, author: Hosein Khanifar, source: Porseman Publication, 34 th no., Tehran.
8. Yasrebi, ch, freethinking and creativity in art education, formal base of sore-e-mehr publications, Tehran (1384).
9. Hoseini, Afzalossadet, nature of creativity and its training methods. Tehran: Roshd Publications, 1378.
10. Shahr Art, Mehrnaz, towards creative and dynamic education, summary of articles presented in second symposium of training position in elementary education (education ministry), Tehran, Tarbiat press. 1370.
11. Dotran, R, schools development under the auspices of education methods evolution. Translated by: Mohammad Mansour.

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